San Francisco Civil War Round Table Meeting
                           Thursday 19th March 2015
                        at the United Irish Cultural Center
                        2700 45th Avenue, San Francisco
Female Spies of the Civil War
                                        presented by
                                    Silver Williams



      Ms. Williams chose two examples to illustrate the activity of the many
women on both sides who acted as spies and messengers during the Civil War.
      Pauline Cushman, born Harriet Wood, was an actress who spied for the
Union by fraternizing with Confederate officers. While carrying concealed plans
in her shoe she was captured by Braxton Bragg's men and condemned by him to
be executed. She managed to escape when Union troops attacked. General
James Garfield awarded her the rank of Brevet Major. She went on to tour the
country, giving lectures on her life as a spy. She fell on hard times and died in
poverty in San Francisco, where she is buried in the Presidio under the name
"Pauline Fryer," the family name of her last husband.
      Sarah Slater was a Confederate spy who worked with both John Wilkes
Booth and John Surratt prior to Lincoln's assassination. She was recruited in
Richmond by James Seddon, the Confederate Secretary of War, and carried
messages for him to Confederate sympathizers in Canada. On a mission to bring
funds to Montreal for the Canadian operation, she vanished. The mystery of her
disappearance has never been solved.