San Francisco Civil War Round Table Meeting
                         Thursday 17th November 2016
                     at the United Irish Cultural Center
                     2700 45th Avenue, San Francisco
        Harbor Forts of San Francisco
                                       presented by
                                  John A. Martini        
   Between 1861 and 1865, an elaborate network of interlocking forts was erected
around San Francisco Bay in anticipation of attacks that never came, either by
Confederate raiders or British naval forces sympathetic to the Confederacy. In this
talk, John Martini will discuss the evolution of the bay’s Civil War forts with special
emphasis on “the Gibraltar of the Pacific” — Alcatraz Island — and its important
role as both a harbor defense fort and a lockup for Copperheads, treasonous
Confederate plotters, and the infamous “Chapman Pirates."

   John A. Martini is a native San Franciscan and a life-long researcher into the
history of California and the American West. He worked as a National Park Ranger
for more than twenty-five years at parks around the country. His published works
include Fort Point National Historic Site; Fortress Alcatraz; The Last Missile Site;
Fort Baker Through the Years; and Sutro’s Glass Palace: The Story of Sutro
Baths.  After more than 25 years as a ranger, John retired to pursue a career as a
writer, historian, researcher, and lecturer. He appears regularly on The History
Channel, A&E Network, The Discovery Channel, and PBS history specials. He
continues to volunteer for the National Park Service, notably on Alcatraz Island, at
Lands End, and at Fort Cronkhite in Marin.